Prostate cancer diagnosis is based on the followings:
Digital rectal examination of the prostate (DRE)
Prostate specific antigen level (PSA)
Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)
From the above results the physician will decide if the patient should be submitted to prostate biopsy. Prostate biopsy is the procedure through which small prostatic tissue samples are obtained under transrectal ultrasound guidance, in order to be examined by the pathologist who will confirm or not the disease.
Two types of prostate biopsy exist the transrectal and the transperineal or mapping biopsy. The first, refers to the conventional transrectal method according to which, through rectum, usually 12 samples (6 from each lobe) are obtained from non-constant sites selected by the physician performing the procedure. According to the second and latest form of prostate biopsy, numerous tissue samples are obtained through skin (20-60, depending on gland size) from specific and constant sites (every 0,5cm). This evolutionary method offers higher diagnostic accuracy while at the same time morbidity remains the same with that of the conventional method. Prostate mapping biopsy is an essential "tool" for focal treatment. This form of biopsy was performed for the first time in Greece by Prostate Brachytherapy Center in cooperation with Ultrasound Department of "Hygeia" Hospital (2008).